Accounting distinguishes between capital improvements and repairs and maintenance to an asset. A capital improvement is treated as a capital cost and included on the balance sheet of the business, whereas repairs and maintenance are treated as expenses and included in the income statement for the year.
Capital expenditures and revenue expenditures are treated differently in accounting. Capital expenditure relates to expenditure on non-current assets, whereas revenue expenditure is expenditure relating to the day to day trading activities of the business.
A business will often purchase a number of long term assets for a single combined purchase price. In order to record the assets in the accounting records and to allow depreciation to be correctly calculated, the basket purchase price needs to be allocated in proportion to the fair market value of the assets.
A business buys networking equipment to the value of 12,000 and funds the purchase with a down payment in cash of 3,000 and the balance on credit terms form the supplier of the equipment.
The double entry bookkeeping is recorded using this equipment purchase compound journal entry.
The fixed assets journal entries below act as a quick reference, and set out the most commonly encountered situations when dealing with the double entry posting of fixed assets.
In each case the journal entries show the debit and credit account together with a brief narrative.
When a business has a disposal of fixed assets, the original cost and the accumulated depreciation to the date of disposal relating to those fixed assets must be removed from the accounting records. A disposal of fixed assets can occur when the asset is scrapped and written off, sold for a profit to give a gain on disposal, or sold for a loss to give a loss on disposal.