Direct Method Cash Flow Statement

The direct method cash flow statement is one way to show the cash flow from operating activities of a business. The statement effectively converts each line of the accruals based income statement into a cash based format.

 

Typically the direct method cash flow statement discloses gross cash receipts and payments for each of the following line items.

  • Cash received from customers
  • Other cash received
  • Cash paid to suppliers for goods and services
  • Cash paid to employees for wages and salaries
  • Interest paid
  • Income tax paid
  • Other cash paid

Direct Method Cash Flow Example

Suppose a business reports the following income statement and beginning and ending balance sheet extracts for a financial year.

Income statement for the year
Sales revenue 85,600
Cost of goods sold 35,300
Gross profit 50,300
Wages expense 22,400
Depreciation 5,900
Operating income 22,000
Interest expense 2,300
Income before tax 19,700
Income tax expense 4,100
Net income 15,600
Beginning and ending balance sheet extracts
Beginning Ending
Accounts receivable 16,700 20,500
Inventory 12,100 10,800
Accounts payable 14,200 11,300
Wages payable 5,400 6,100

To prepare the operating activities section of the direct method cash flow statement we consider each line of the accruals based income statement in turn and convert it to a cash basis.

Sales Revenue to Cash Received From Customers

Sales revenue represents goods and services sold to customers and will include both cash sales and on-account sales if credit terms are given to customers.

To convert the accrual based sales revenue figure from the income statement to a cash received basis the business needs to adjust for the movement on accounts receivable during the year as shown below.

The ending balance on accounts receivable (AR) is given by the following formula.
Ending AR = Beginning AR + Sales - Cash received from customers
By rearranging this formula we get.
Cash received from customers = Sales - Beginning AR  - Ending AR
Cash received from customers = 85,600 + 16,700 - 20,500 = 81,800

The gross cash received from customers during the year is 81,800.

Cost of Goods Sold to Cash Paid to Suppliers

Cost of goods sold (COGS) represents the cost of supplying goods and services to customers.

To convert the accrual based cost of goods sold figure from the income statement to a cash paid basis the business needs to adjust for balance sheet movements on inventory, and accounts payable.

Inventory

The cost of goods sold is adjusted to reflect any balance sheet inventory movements in order to calculate the amount of purchases from suppliers.

The ending balance on inventory is given as follows.
Ending inventory = Beginning inventory + Purchases - COGS
By rearranging this formula we get.
Purchases = COGS - Beginning Inventory + Ending Inventory
Purchases = 35,300 - 12,100 + 10,800 = 34,000

The business purchased 34,000 from suppliers.

Accounts Payable

The next step is to convert the purchases figure to a cash paid basis by adjusting for the movement on accounts payable during the year.

The ending balance on accounts payable (AP) is given by the following formula
Ending AP = Beginning AP + Purchases - Cash paid to suppliers
By rearranging this formula we get.
Cash paid to suppliers = Purchases + Beginning AP - Ending AP
Cash paid to suppliers = 34,000 + 14,200 - 11,300 = 36,900

The gross cash paid to suppliers for the year (sometimes referred to as cash flow to creditors) is 36,900.

Cash Paid for Expenses

In this example wages is used to represent expenses in the income statement. The calculations shown below could equally apply to any type of expense.

To convert the accrual based wage expense from the income statement to a cash paid basis the business needs to adjust for the movement on the wages payable balance during the year.

The ending balance on wages payable (WP) is given by the following formula.
Ending WP = Beginning WP + Wages expense - Cash paid to employees
By rearranging this formula we get.
Cash paid to employees = Wage expense + Beginning WP - Ending WP
Cash paid to employees = 22,400 + 5,400 - 6,100 = 21,700

The cash paid to employees in respect of wages is 21,700.

Other Income Statement Line Items

The other line items in the income statement above are depreciation, the interest expense, and income tax expense.

Depreciation is a non-cash item in that it is an accounting entry and does not involve the movement of cash, as such it can be excluded from the direct method cash flow statement.

Both the interest and income tax expenses should be adjusted in the same manner as any other expense (as demonstrated for the wages in the calculations above). In this example there are no balance sheet movements in relation to these two items and therefore the interest and income tax expenses shown in the income statement are the same as the interest paid (2,300) and income tax paid (4,100) during the year.

Statement of Cash Flows Direct Method

Using the information above the direct method cash flow statement can be constructed as follows.

Direct Method Cash Flow Statement
Cash received from customers 81,800
Cash paid to suppliers -36,900
Cash paid to employees -21,700
Interest paid -2,300
Tax paid -4,100
Cash flow from operating activities 16,800

The direct method cash flow shows that the cash flow into the business from operating activities is 16,800.

Direct Method vs Indirect Method Comparison

The direct method cash flow statement shows the gross cash receipts and payments from a business. In contrast the indirect method cash flow statement starts with the net income of a business and then adjusts this for non-cash items and movements in working capital.

It is important to understand that only the presentation differs between the direct method cash flow and the indirect method cash flow, the amount of cash flow from operating activities of the business will be the same in both cases.

To demonstrate this the information used in the direct method cash flow example above is set out below in the indirect cash flow statement format.

The first step is to calculate the balance sheet movements as shown below.

Balance sheet movements for the year
Movement
Accounts receivable 3,800
Inventory -1,300
Accounts payable -2,900
Wages payable 700

These movements are then used to present the indirect cash flow statement as follows.

Indirect Method Cash Flow Statement
Net income 15,600
Depreciation 5,900
Increase in Accounts receivable -3,800
Decrease in inventory 1,300
Decrease in accounts payable -2,900
Increase in wages payable 700
Cash flow from operating activities 16,800

The net income of the business is adjusted by adding back the non-cash depreciation and by adjusting for the balance sheet movements to convert the accruals based net income to a cash basis.

It should be noted that in both cases the cash flow from operating activities is 16,800.

Direct Method Cash Flow Statement October 17th, 2017Team

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