A business expects to receive consideration for the sale of goods to its customers. Since accounting periods are for a defined time period a process is needed to allocate the correct amount of consideration to the correct period. This process is referred to as revenue recognition and is applied using a five step revenue model.
A business records an bookkeeping entry for goods given to charity. Since the goods are given free of charge they have no sales value and cannot be recorded as sales and therefore the cost of goods needs to be removed from the purchases account and transferred to a charitable expenses account.
A business records an accounting entry for free samples given to customers. Since the free promotional samples have no sales value they cannot be recorded as sales and therefore the cost of the samples needs to be removed from the purchases account and transferred to a promotional expenses account.
Stock options are a form of equity based compensation. When a business purchases the services of key personnel and pays for those services using stock options, it must record the expense in the income statement over the vesting period using stock based compensation accounting journal entries.
The four main financial statements are the income statement, statement of retained earnings, balance sheet, and cash flow statement. All four statements are interrelated and allow the user to more fully understand the financial performance of the business through the analysis of its financial statements.
Contra means against. In bookkeeping terms, a contra expense account refers to an account which is offset against an expense account.
As an expense account is normally a debit balance, a contra expense account will normally be a credit balance. When the two balances are offset against each other they show the net balance of both accounts.
Errors in inventory impact the balance sheet and income statement of a business, but have no effect on its operating cash flow. In the cash flow the change in net income as a result of the inventory error, is compensated for by a change in the movement on working capital.
A business has an estimated annual income tax expense of 14,000 due of profits for the accounting period. A demand for the amount has not yet been received from the tax authorities, and the expense has not been recorded in the accounting records. An accrued income tax adjusting entry is made in the accounting records.
A vertical analysis shows each line of financial statements as a percentage of a base line item so that comparisons can be made. This free Excel calculator produces a vertical analysis of an income statement in relation to total revenue, and of a balance sheet in relation to total assets.