When a business purchases an asset which includes several assets such as land, land improvements, and buildings which have dissimilar depreciation rates, it needs to be able to allocate the total cost of the asset to its component parts. The relative fair market value method is one technique used to carry out this allocation.
When a business trades overseas either importing from suppliers or exporting to customers, the transactions are normally conducted in a foreign currency. Since the business reports in a different currency it must reflect any exchange gain or loss when accounting for foreign currency transactions.
Immaterial waste products arising from a production process are known as byproducts or by-products. The products are usually accounted for in a non-GAAP manner using either the production method or the sales method. The production method recognizes the value of the byproduct when it is produced, and the sales method recognizes the value when the byproduct is sold.
Adding a partner to an existing partnership can result in either goodwill or bonus journal entries depending on which method of accounting is used. The purchase of partnership interest can be undertaken at a valuation equal to, more than, or less than book value.
Accounting distinguishes between capital improvements and repairs and maintenance to an asset. A capital improvement is treated as a capital cost and included on the balance sheet of the business, whereas repairs and maintenance are treated as expenses and included in the income statement for the year.
The accruals and cash basis of accounting are two different methods of preparing financial statements. A business can calculate information relating to cash receipts and payments from it’s accrual based accounting system using accrual to cash conversion formulas.