Departmental accounting is used by a business to assess the profitability of each of its departments using either the gross profit, contribution, or net profit method.
The sales return day book is used to record goods returned by customers. The sales return book is not part of the double entry posting and is simply a chronological list of credit notes issued to customers and used to post the accounts receivable and general ledgers.
The bank transaction journal entries below act as a quick reference, and set out the most commonly encountered situations when dealing with the double entry posting of banking transactions. In each case the journal entries show the debit and credit account together with a brief narrative.
When a business undertakes import trade with overseas suppliers and makes payment in a foreign currency it needs to try and protect itself from fluctuations in the currency exchange rate. One method of achieving this is to buy the foreign currency using a currency forward contract.
When a business undertakes export trade with overseas customers and receives payment in a foreign currency it needs to try and protect itself from fluctuations in the exchange rate. One method of achieving this is to sell the foreign currency using a foreign exchange forward contract.
When a business trades overseas either importing from suppliers or exporting to customers, the transactions are normally conducted in a foreign currency. Since the business reports in a different currency it must reflect any exchange gain or loss when accounting for foreign currency transactions.