The four main financial statements are the income statement, statement of retained earnings, balance sheet, and cash flow statement. All four statements are interrelated and allow the user to more fully understand the financial performance of the business through the analysis of its financial statements.
Contra means against. In bookkeeping terms, a contra expense account refers to an account which is offset against an expense account.
As an expense account is normally a debit balance, a contra expense account will normally be a credit balance. When the two balances are offset against each other they show the net balance of both accounts.
Errors in inventory impact the balance sheet and income statement of a business, but have no effect on its operating cash flow. In the cash flow the change in net income as a result of the inventory error, is compensated for by a change in the movement on working capital.
A business has an estimated annual income tax expense of 14,000 due of profits for the accounting period. A demand for the amount has not yet been received from the tax authorities, and the expense has not been recorded in the accounting records. An accrued income tax adjusting entry is made in the accounting records.
A vertical analysis shows each line of financial statements as a percentage of a base line item so that comparisons can be made. This free Excel calculator produces a vertical analysis of an income statement in relation to total revenue, and of a balance sheet in relation to total assets.
The percentage of completion method is used to calculate the amount of revenue and income that can be recognized by a business on a long term project. The method is in accordance with the matching or accruals concept of accounting, and ensures that the costs incurred on the project are matched to the revenues arising from that project.
A business has been invoiced 500 for goods and takes a 2% cash settlement discount for early payment.
The original invoice would have been posted to accounts payable, so the balance before settlement on the suppliers account is 500. A 2% discount on 500 is 10, and the amount of cash the customer pays is therefore 490.