## Nominal Interest Rate Formula

The nominal rate formula calculates the nominal rate of interest for a year based on an effective rate (r), with compounding taking place a number of times a year (m).

## Effective Interest Rate Formula

The effective interest rate formula calculates the rate of interest for a number of compounding periods (n) based on a nominal rate (i) compounded a number of times a year (n).

## Future Value of a Growing Annuity Formula

The future value of a growing annuity formula is used to calculate the value at the end of period n of a series of periodic payments which increase or decrease at a constant rate each period. The payments made at the end of each period, and a discount rate i% is applied.

## Present Value of a Growing Annuity Formula

The present value of a growing annuity formula is used to calculate the present value of a series of periodic payments which increase at a constant rate each period. The payments made at the end of each period, and a discount rate i% is applied.

## Present Value of Annuity Due Formula

The present value of an annuity due formula is used to calculate the present value of a series of periodic payments. The payments are for the same amount, made at the start of each period, and a discount rate i% is applied.

## MIRR Formula

The MIRR formula is used to calculate the rate of return for a project taking into account the finance cost (f) of the cash used to fund the project (negative cash flows), and the rate of return (r) on cash from the project (positive cash flows) reinvested elsewhere.

## Doubling Time Formula Continuous Compounding

The doubling time equation continuous compounding calculates the number of periods it takes to double the value of an investment when the interest is compounded continuously at a given discount rate (i).

## Annuity Payment Formula FV

This annuity payment formula FV calculates the annuity payment required to provide a given future value FV. The annuity formula assumes payments are made at the end of each period for n periods, and a discount rate i is applied.

## Annuity Payment Formula PV

This annuity payment formula PV calculates the annuity payment required to provide a given value today PV (present value). The annuity formula assumes payments are made at the end of each period for n periods, and a discount rate i is applied.

## Continuous to Periodic Interest Rate Formula

The continuous to periodic interest rate formula is used to convert a continuous interest rate (r) to a periodic interest rate (i) with compounding taking place (m) times in a period.

## Effective Annual Rate Formula

The effective interest rate formula calculates the rate of interest for a year based on a nominal rate (i) compounded a number of times a year (m). The formula for annual interest rate is sometimes referred to as the annual equivalent rate formula or AER formula.